Question by Ethan S: …………………………?
A knockout from a harsh blow can cause some very severe brain injuries and in some instances have lead to death and permanent head and brain damage. A Concussion which in Latin, means “to shake violently” is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. The term concussion can also be referred to as mild brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), mild head injury (MHI), and minor head trauma. The word concussion is used most likely in sports medicine and is frequently defined as a head injury with a transient loss of brain function, concussion can cause a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms. Concussions can, broadly speaking, be broken into two major groupings; those of low severity, and those of high severity. Low severity concussions often get the media spotlight, being highlighted in sporting events and mass media. However, though not as glamorous, there are also concussions that end with the sufferer in hospital. Concussions are usually assigned to different levels of severity based on symptoms of the injured.
Concussions of high severity can usually be treated in hospitals and usually involves administration of inflammation reducing drugs to reduce the risk of brain tissue damage. Treatment of low severity concussion involves monitoring and rest. Symptoms usually go away entirely within three weeks, though they may persist, or complications may occur Repeated concussions can cause cumulative brain damage called dementia pugilistica or severe complications such as second-impact syndrome.
It is very uncertain on the amount of people who get concussions every year is unknown, however it is very possible that 6 out of every 1000 people will get at least one concussion in their life. Common causes include sports injuries, bicycle accidents, car accidents, and falls; the latter two are the most frequent causes among adults. Concussion may be caused by a blow to the head, or by acceleration forces without a direct impact. The forces involved disrupt cellular processes in the brain for days or weeks.
It is not known whether the concussed brain is structurally damaged the way it is in other types of brain injury (albeit to a lesser extent) or whether concussion mainly entails a loss of function with physiological but not structural changes. Cellular damage has reportedly been found in concussed brains, but it may have been due to artifacts from the studies. A debate about whether structural damage exists in concussion has raged for centuries and is ongoing.MTBI has a mortality rate of almost zero. The symptoms of most concussions resolve within weeks, but problems may persist. It is not common for problems to be permanent, and outcome is usually excellent. People over age 55 may take longer to heal from MTBI or may heal incompletely. Similarly, factors such as a previous head injury or a coexisting medical condition have been found to predict longer-lasting post-concussion symptoms. Other factors that may lengthen recovery time after MTBI include psychological problems such as substance abuse or clinical depression, poor health before the injury or additional injuries sustained during it, and life stress. Longer periods of amnesia or loss of consciousness immediately after the injury may indicate longer recovery times from residual symptoms. For unknown reasons, having had one concussion significantly increases a person’s risk of having another. Having previously sustained a sport concussion has been found to be a strong factor increasing the likelihood of a concussion in the future. Other strong factors include participation in a contact sport and body mass size. The prognosis may differ between concussed adults and children; little research has been done on concussion in the pediatric population, but concern exists that severe concussions could interfere with brain development in children.

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Adolescent Drug Abuse MDFT Case Study (Part 1 of 2) – This is a presentation of a typical MDFT case. It is Part 1 of 2. To see additional videos, including part two of this case presentation, please go to our YouTube channel (www.youtube.com ), or go directly to the videos using the following links: (1) Multidimensional Family Therapy, An Introduction (Part 1 of 2) www.youtube.com (2) Multidimensional Family Therapy, An Introduction (Part 2 of 2) www.youtube.com (3) Risk and Protective Factors www.youtube.com (4) MDFT – Juvenile Justice www.youtube.com (5) Adolescent Treatment www.youtube.com (6) Adolescent Drug Abuse MDFT Case Study (Part 1 of 2) www.youtube.com (7) Adolescent Drug Abuse MDFT Case Study (Part 2 of 2) www.youtube.com (8) Future of Adolescent Treatment and Research www.youtube.com (9) Dr. Howard Liddle, Multidimensional Family Therapy DVD (APA Video Series) www.youtube.com (10) MDFT (Multidimensional Family Therapy, in Dutch with English subtitles) www.youtube.com (11) MDFT (Multidimensional Family Therapy, Dutch version) www.youtube.com (12) MDFT (Multidimensional Family Therapy, German version) www.youtube.com About Dr. Howard Liddle: Howard A. Liddle, EdD, ABPP (Family Psychology), is Professor, in the Departments of Epidemiology and Public Health and Psychology, and Director, of the Center for Treatment Research on Adolescent Drug Abuse at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (www.miami.edu\ctrada).Trained as a psychologist and family therapist, Dr. Liddle directs a long term program of


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